(The Light we see in our daily world has the Power to open Doors that have never been openened before)

Albert Einstein, Lorentz and Minkowski published together in 1905 the Theory of Special Relativity and Einstein published in 1915 his field theory of general relativity based on a curved 4-dimensional space-time continuum to integrate the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field in one unified field. Since then the method of Einstein’s unifying field theory has been developed by many others in more than 4 dimensions resulting finally in the well-known 10-dimensional and 11-dimensional “string theory”.

String theory is an outgrowth of S-matrix theory, a research program begun by Werner Heisenberg in 1943 (following John Archibald Wheelers 1937 introduction of the S-matrix), picked up and advocated by many prominent theorists starting in the late 1950’s.

Theodor Franz Eduard Kaluza (1885-1954), was a German mathematician and physicist well-known for the Kaluza–Klein theory involving field equations in curved five-dimensional space. His idea that fundamental forces can be unified by introducing additional dimensions re-emerged much later in the “String Theory”.

The original Kaluza-Klein theory was one of the first attempts to create an unified field theory i.e. the theory, which would unify all the forces under one fundamental law. It was published in 1921 by Theodor Kaluza and extended in 1926 by Oskar Klein. The basic idea of this theory was to postulate one extra compactified space dimension and introduce nothing but pure gravity in a new (1 + 4)-dimensional space-time. Klein suggested that the fifth dimension would be rolled up into a tiny, compact loop on the order of 10-35 [m]

The "New Theory" represents the "4-dimensional Unification of De Broglie Waves and Electromagnetic Waves". The "New Theory" demonstrates that the propagation of light is fully consistent with Newton's famous 3 laws of motion. That the speed of light is fully controlled by a prefect equilibrium between the inertia of the electromagnetic radiation energy (electromagnetic mass) and the electromagnetic "Radiation Pressure" at the front of the "Beam of Light". That, in the application of a laser beam, the outward oriented radiation pressure at the sides of the laser beam has been fully compensated by the inward oriented forces of electromagnetic interaction according Newton’s third law "Action = Reaction".

This consequence of "Newtonian Equilibrium" within every "Beam of Light" and within every "Light Configuration" has been made possible by the 3-dimensional fundamental Electromagnetic Wave Equation (5)

Every “Physical Possible” Electro-Magnetic Field Configuration (visible or non-visible light) under the influence of a Gravitational Field with gravitational acceleration "g" has to be a solution of this fundamental equation (5-a)

After many years of research, the 11-dimensional Super String Theory did not lead to the fundamental answers on the fundamental questions in Physics. Why do elementary particles have the exact numbers for mass, charge and spin. To find answers a new path in Physics has been chosen. A path that has been based on a fundamental property in our universe. The fundamental property of Equilibrium. The whole Universe is in a perfect Equilibrium. This fundamental property of Equilibrium has been extended to a 4-dimensional Hyperspace Continuum in which a perfect equilibrium persists in any of the 4 coordinate directions.

The requirement of a 4-dimensional Equilibrium results in the outcome that the Dirac Equation is only one equation in a set of 4 equations. And that the Dirac Equation originates from an electromagnetic equation in the time-energy domain. This new 4-Dimensional Hyperspace Equilibrium Theory opens a new door to an unexplored field of mathematical and physical challenges. This theory is a new approach in physics based on a 4-Dimensional Hyperspace Equilibrium resulting in the 4-dimensional Dirac Equation which represents the "Unification of (quantum mechanical) De Broglie Waves and Electromagentic Waves". Solving these 4 simultaneous equations offers the possibility to find answers to the fundamental questions in physics within a quantum mechanical 4-Dimensional Frame-Work. Every Physical Possible Electro-Magnetic Field Configuration of Confinement has to be a solution of this fundamental 4-Dimensional Relativistic Dirac Equation.

The Equation in the Time-Energy Domain (x4) equals the well-known Quantum Mechanical Dirac Equation. The 3 Equations in the 3 spatial directions (coordinates x1, x2, x3) describe the Electromagentic Field. The term B-1 controls the speed of light. The terms B-2 and B-3 control the confinement of Light for the Electric Radiation Pressure and the terms B-4 and B-5 control the confinement of Light for the Magnetic Radiation Pressure.

As a demonstration of the power of the 4-dimensional Relativistic Dirac Equation, we observe a very basic and simple polarized laser beam with a Gaussian Intensity Division. The laser beam propagates towards the z-direction. The Electric Field "E" is oriented along the x-axis and the Magnetic Field "H" is oriented along the y-axis.

The laser beam propagates towards the positive z-direction:

The laser beam has a Gaussian Intensity Division:

The laser beam propagates towards the positive z-direction with the speed of light. That is only possible because exactly at the speed of light there will exist a "Perfect Equilibrium" between the Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure towards the positive z-direction and the inertia term of the Electromagnetic Radiation Energy (electromagnetic mass) which has been represented by the time derivative of the "Poynting Vector" in term B-1 and is oriented along the negative z-direction.

In the Unified 4-dimensional Equilibrium always a"Perfect Equilibrium" will exist between the Electromagnetic Radiation Pressure towards the positive z-direction and the inertia term of the Electromagnetic Radiation Energy (electromagnetic mass) which has been represented by the time derivative of the "Poynting Vector" in term B-1 and is oriented along the negative z-direction.

The electromagnetic "Radiation Pressure" in the positive z-direction (direction of propagation) has been determined by the electromagnetic "Energy Density". The electromagnetic "Inertia Force" has been determined by the electromagnetic "Mass (Energy Density)" and the "Propagation Speed". There is only "One Exact Single Velocity" at which "Velocity" the electromagnetic "Radiation Pressure" in the in the positive z-direction perfectly counterbalances the opposite directed (negative z-direction) "Force of Inertia". That single speed has been called the “Velocity of Perfect Equilibrium” and has been called in general the "Speed of Light" and is independent of the frequency and the intesnity of the electromagnetic beam of light.

When a laser beam (beam of light) passes a gravitational field with acceleration ”g” in the (x,y) direction, the radiation pressures within de the beam of light in the (x,y) plane will shift due to gravitational forces. Because according Einstein’s E = mc^2, the electromagnetic energy of the beam of light has electromagnetic mass, which will be attracted by the gravitational field. The shift in the radiation pressures in the x-y plane due to gravitational-electromagnetic interaction can only be compensated by the inertia forces within the (x,y) plane due to a circular orbit of the beam of light with the origin of the gravitational field as the center.

The perfect equilibrium, where the inertia forces due to the circular orbit of the beam of light are in a perfect balance with the attractive gravitational forces, exists at one defined radius “R” of the beam of light (laser beam), independent of the intensity of the beam of light and independent of the frequency of the beam of light. Only the acceleration “g” of the gravitational field determines the radius of equilibrium “R”.

The x-y plane is oriented perpendicular on the z-direction. The speed of light towards the positive z-direction equals the speed of light (the constant "c = 300.000 km/s"). But the speed of light in the x-y plane has to be exactly zero. Else the diameter of the laser beam would become larger and larger during the propagation along the positive z-direction. This is only possible becasue the Electromagnetic confining forces B-2,B-3,B-4 and B-5 compensate exactly the outward oriented radiation pressure towards the x-dirention and the y-direction.

The Electric Radiation Pressure has been compensated by the Coulomb Force Densities within the Laser Beam

The Electric Radiation Pressure along the x-axis has been compensated by the term B-2:

The Electric Radiation Pressure along the y-axis has been compensated by the term B-3:

The Magnetic Radiation Pressure along the y-axis has been compensated by the term B-4:

The Magnetic Radiation Pressure along the x-axis has been compensated by the term B-5:

We return to the 4-Dimensional Relativistic Dirac Equation:

The Stationary Electro-Magnetic Field Confinement with a dimension more than a “Billion Times a Billion” times smaller than Superstrings is a solution of equation (5-a) and has been presented in the equations (58) and (59):

The Electric Charge Density and the Magnetic Flux Density (Spin) for the Stationary Electro-Magnetic Field Confinement Type III with a dimension more than a “Billion Times a Billion” times smaller than Superstrings is a solution of equation (5-a) and has been presented in the equations (63) and (64):

PlotGraph of the Electric Field Intensity (f(r) for the region 10 Exp[-85] < r < 10 Exp[-80] with a frequency ω = 10 Exp[90] s Exp[-1] in which the gravitational field accelleration has been chosen accordingly an electromagnetic mass of 1,6726 x 10 Exp[-27] [kg] located at the center of the confinement.

As an example a small part of the text in the book about Entanglement:

Entanglement

One of the first answers every Quantum Physicist will give you when you doubt the Holy Grail of the “Particle-Wave Duality” in Quantum Physics is Bell’s Theorem. But the “Particle-Wave Duality” can never explain the laws in Quantum Mechanics. In special the “Particle-Wave Duality” cannot explain “Entanglement”.

In the new model of the “Particle-Wave-Mass” Tri-Unity , the concept of a particle on itself has completely disappeared. A particle itself does not exist anymore. The “Particle-Wave-Mass” is a wave of confined light (Electromagnetic Radiation) with a “particle aspect” and a “mass aspect”. And sometimes we observe only one of the three aspects.

To demonstrate this, a simple model of a string in a music instrument like a piano, will be used. As soon the string has been excited, we will hear a tune (frequency spectrum). Along the string a pattern of “standing (stationary) transversal waves” occurs. When we observe one single harmonic frequency we observe that along the string a pattern of nodes and anti-nodes occurs. The nodes as well as the anti-nodes are connected together in an “Entanglement” And because the information travels along the string simultaneously in both directions, it gives the impression that the information travels with an infinite speed. Because the sound wave in the string has been confined between the two ends of the string, Entanglement occurs.

Entanglement is only possible within the confinement of wave patterns. Because only then the wave pattern can mathematically be considered as the superposition of waves propagating in opposite directions and forming “standing (stationary) waves” It does not matter if the “standing (stationary) waves” occur because of the confinement by the ends of the string or a confinement of an electromagnetic field due to “Electromagnetic-Gravitational Interaction”.

Now we consider the creation of an “electron-anti electron” pair. Both have been created at the same location. That is the exact location where the string has been excited in the example. When the electron-anti electron pair moves away from each other, it is still in the essence “one confined wave pattern”. And only through Gravitational-Electromagnetic Interaction this wave pattern has been confined and the area of confinement becomes only larger when both particles move apart. The electron/anti-electron pair is still one stationary confined harmonic electromagnetic wave pattern, which is the superposition of a complex nodes-anti nodes pattern. Confined by its own “Electromagnetic-Gravitational Field “Entanglement” will occur in a comparable way how it occurs in the string of a music instrument. Confinement is the necessary requirement for the existence of “Entanglement”.

Entanglement is the fundamental evidence that the ”Particle-Wave Duality” in Classical Quantum Mechanics is not able to explain “Entanglement”. Particles can not be at the same place simultaneously. The weakness in Classical Quantum Mechanics is the “particle”. Not the “wave”. Modern experiments crumble down the “Particle-Wave-Duality” model of Niels Bohr more and more. How is it possible to make a photo of a complex probability wave? How is “Entanglement” possible? How can a photon create an electron/anti-electron pair?

Classical Quantum Physics needs a make-over. A new concept that does not crumble down further by every new experiment. And the particle concept is the weakness in Classical Quantum Mechanics. We come closer and closer to the final conclusion that particles do not exist. “Elementary particles” is a concept that worked very well for the last 2000 years. But it does no work anymore. We have to give up a way of thinking in the way we are already thinking for more than 2000 years since Plato introduced the concept of “Elementary particle”.

Times are changing and it is time for us to leave the ancient save roads of the Greek Philosophers and give up the safety of our illusions. It is time to move on and let the “particle” go.

Let us build a new model. A new model without particles. A model free from the ancient Greek Philosophers. A model just grounded only on the wave.

And that is what I am offering. A new model without particles. In which the property of matter will be carried only by the wave. And the wave has already been given to us since the creation of our Universe. The "Light Wave". The Light Wave which carries the ability to confine itself and manifest itself like a particle. The Light Wave which carries the ability to confine itself and manifest itself in the property of inertia and carries mass. The confined light wave that is in the fundamental essence just only a wave but carries the 3-unity in itself of particle-wave-mass. The Particle-Wave-Mass 3-Unity.

Two versions of the book, describing this theory, are available:

The Religious Version: “Beyond Superstrings”. This book has been written for the Atheists. For the non-believers. For those who do not believe in God, in Allah, in Elohim. For those who do not believe in YHWH. For those who do not believe that there is a life after death or there was a life before death. For those who do not believe in the human soul that will survive every death. For those who do not believe in evil. I have written for you a special book. Because you are special. Because I do believe that you are so much more than you think you are. You do not want to live in a world filled with lies, fear and fairy tales. And that is because you are a warrior. And the warrior does not sleep in the same dormitory where the enemy sleeps. Because he knows that the enemy will destroy him in the deepest hour of his sleep when he is weak and defenseless. You are the army that will rise when the darkness falls over the earth. You will become the soldiers on the battlegrounds when the war has come. The war between Light and Darkness. The war between Good and Evil. The war between Love and Hate. I will speak to you rough and without mercy. Because you are asleep in the dormitories of your soul and you do not see that your dormitory is already on fire. Yes I am ringing the alarm bells in the middle of the darkest hour of the night and will make every sound that I can, to wake you up from your deep sleep and tell you that the armies of darkness are coming. The Army of Darkness will come like a thief in the darkest hour of the night.

The non-Religious version: “Unified 4-dimensional Hyperspace Equilibrium” which only contains the mathematical part of the book. This book has been written for them who have found YHWH already and I do not have to speak to them in words they already know.

Wim Vegt graduated in 1973 his study Electro Techniques at the Polytechnics in the Hague in the Netherlands and was during that time chief editor of the alternative School Journal "Eksist".

Afterwards he studied Technical Physics at the Technical University Eindhoven in the Netherlands where he graduated in 1988. During that period he became part of the editorial board of the alternative University Journal Magenta. During his study Physics he was deeply motivated by the original way of thinking of Albert Einstein and his ideas about the 4-dimensional Space-Time Continuum and his ideas about Light. After his graduation in he was involved in teaching and research. He published in several scientific journals like "Physics Essays" and the French journal “Les Annales de Louis de Broglie". His field of expertise was light and he spend his life on the research to find the secrets behind light and the impact on modern physics like quantum mechanics.

"Unified 4-Dimensional Hyperspace Equilibrium"

"Beyond Superstrings"

in PDF Format

"Beyond Superstrings" in Word Format

ElectroMagnetic

Gravitational Confinement

(Calculations in Notebook Format)

Beyond Superstrings

(Calculations in Notebook Format)

OSF (Open Source Frame Work) Unification of the Maxwell-Einstein-Dirac Correspondence

Calculations in PDF format

Publication in "Physics

Essays" in 1995

Publication in "Les Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie" in 2002

ElectroMagnetic-

Gravitational Confinement

Calculations in PDF Format

Beyond Superstrings

Calculations in PDF Format

"Unification of the Maxwell-Einstein-Dircac Correspondence". Open Science Framework OSF.

"Unification of the Maxwell-Einstein-Dirac Correspondence". Open Source FrenXiv.

"Unification of the Maxwell-Einstein-Dirac Correspondence". Open Source Thesis Commons.

"Unification of the Maxwell-Einstein-Dirac Correspondence". Open Source FrenXiv.

The Uninified Field 4-Dimensional Relativistic Dirac Equation. Conference on Applied Physics and Mathematics. Tokio, Japan. October 22-23, 2018